Both bridges are used almost similar site-specific earthquake response spectra for return periods of 475 years in their designing. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. seismic hazard (with the exception for the Kuantan district, where it is highly vulnerable). Usually the effects will rise significantly as results of, countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. investigated the behavior of non-structural elements, particularly masonry infills in reinforced concrete frames at the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake . a)Land-use planning. These risk assessments are very important in increasing public awareness about the threat posed by the natural disaster. Ricci et al. Failure of gabble walls on top of the building during the Van earthquake. effects of Sumatra earthquake have to be considered more seriously in Peninsular Malaysia. Earthquake Mitigation Plan/Measures People actively maintain the mosques on their own. a social vulnerability index map were overlaid with a seismic hazard map that was proposed Following these, the parameters considered, Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Earthquakes for instance can lead to tsunami, landslide and soil liquefaction. The geologic forces that give us the Cascade Mountains, the Coast Range, and the scenic coast line, are the same ones that make this region one of the most earthquake prone spots in the continental US. GEOTECHNICAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M. monitoring and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities. The other main reasons of damages are low concrete strength and workmanship. Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in Continental Asia. We account for north Papua. Building codes reduce earthquake damage to structures. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Abstract An earthquake can be described as natural phenomena that cause shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface. Email. dm_cycle.html (accessed on March 25, 2008). During an earthquake, the stress concentrations increase at intersection of the walls. For this purpose, they evaluated the effects of the event on buildings, bridges, and infrastructure . Submitted: May 25th 2016Reviewed: August 29th 2016Published: February 1st 2017, Home > Books > Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation. a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant While ground floor generally encloses with glass window instead of brick infill walls, partition walls are constructed above from this storey for separating rooms for the residential usage. Earthquakes: prediction, forecasting and mitigation . In the year 2008, an earthquake hit the Sichuan China. in seismic design are; seismic zone factor, important factor of the building, reduction factor, site coefficient for soil characteristic and fundamental period of vibration. Because earthquakes are natural events that have not been accurately calculated and estimated, both when and where they occur as well as their magnitude, according to the mitigation strategies for fault rupture suggested by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), the fault rupture should be avoided, even more, earthquakes have the potential to cause large losses. disasters, the impact of a hazard would be significantly reduced. The purpose of the ATC-22 is to determine the potential earthquake hazard and identify buildings or building components that present unacceptable risk to human lives. Fortunately, the two Penang bridges were designed and considered the seismic loading and taken as examples to highlight the effect of long-distant earthquakes from Sumatra. focused on damage observations and analyzed the emphasizing typical weaknesses of R/C buildings after the 2012 Emilia, Italy, earthquake . In this book chapter, earthquakes and reasons of damages arose from earthquakes for reinforced concrete and masonry structures were presented. The classes of The purpose of this Non-Structural Earthquake Mitigation Guidance Manual is to help the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), State, and local officials, and other stakeholders answer two central questions about non-structural seismic hazard mitigation projects. Using Hazus to quantitatively estimate potential losses from an earthquake. Normal fault graphical presentation and mechanism . Poor connections between adjacent walls and the absence of bond beams cause serious damages. Occurred medium or high-intensity magnitude earthquakes in last twenty years showed that these loses continue. Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Adnan, A, Marto, A, and Hendriyawan. provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for Failure mechanism of strong beam–weak column can be seen in Figure 15. Licensee IntechOpen. Consequently, the buildings that have not adequate gaps pound to each other during the earthquake. Hence, the earthquake engineering research is needed in order to predict the possibility of earthquake in the future that can cause damages to the buildings and structures as well as to find the solution for mitigating the effects. The acceleration is expressed in m/s 2 . hazards created by a disaster. (a) Primary (P) wave and (b) Secondary (S) wave . A total of 21 earthquakes with, In Sabah, in preceding 84 years (since 1923 to 2007), Sabah had experienced 65 earthquakes. Figures 3 and 4 show the tectonic plates and worldwide earthquake distribution, respectively. The last earthquake tragedy for Turkey, very close to present time, is Erciş (Van) and Edremit (Van) earthquakes. Wiki User Answered . Available from: Geoscience Applications, Industrial Technology and Quantum Aspect, Response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey, Department of Civil Engineering, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey.  These are the main reasons. This application should be prevented while constructing stone masonry wall. Earthquake induced ground shaking plays a key role in excessive ground deformation and infrastructure damage, and in triggering secondary hazards such as landslides, flooding, tsunamis, fire and liquefaction. Out-of-plane mechanism may appear from the combination of several deficiencies. Good examples of such campaigns can be seen in The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica. The shapeless blocks show immediate reaction towards equilibrium. capacities of local people, and the related livelihood protection issues are undermined because state, conclusion, with a greater capacity of the indi. Consequently, special attention should be paid to construction and design of beam–column joints and columns. Malaysian Meteorological Service. -793 003, Meghalaya, 2008. The list of non-structural elements in based on FEMA E-74 (FEMA, 2011) and FEMA P-58 (FEMA, 2012a). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, A Study of Earthquake Acceleration Response Spectra at Far Field. collapse, loss of lives and property damages. Liquefaction Phenomenon and Mitigation Strategies for Soil Engineering. Nonstructural hazards pose a great risk to students, staff and visitors in schools during earthquakes.Nonstructural items like ceiling tiles, light fixtures, large windows, and parapets, as well as contents like bookshelves, file cabinets, computer monitors, and vending machines can fall and injure or kill occupants and block safe building egress. To know the topic Natural hazards and disaster: Mitigation strategies, we must first understand the meaning of natural hazards, disasters and there difference.. Natural hazard and disaster are almost inter-related with each other and that is why it is difficult to know the difference between the two. Flood mitigation measures have been in place since the 1950s, in the form of embankments, dams and barrages etc. This technique is based on digital filtering of high-frequency GPS and a, Earthquakes proved to be the most devastating natural disaster with a high mortality rate and wide spread destruction. assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are Earthquake Mitigation People who live in or visit Oregon enjoy some of the most beautiful scenic places in the United States; this beauty however has an underlying cost; earthquakes. Joshi, S.R.,Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre Earthquake effects can cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometers; cause damage to structures or infrastructures facilities, result in loss of life and injury to hundreds of thousands of people, and disrupt the social and economic functioning of the affected area. Failures can be concentrated at any story called as weak storey in which the lateral strength changes suddenly between adjacent stories due to lack of or removing of partition walls or decreasing of cross section of columns. MUSEUM SOS: Strategies for Emergency Response and Salvage American Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A. May 11-16, 2004 NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk,Research Assistant Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design (FAD) Museum Studies Graduate Program, Art Management Program … Earthquakes and Structural Damages, Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation, Taher Zouaghi, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/65425. Bayraktar et al. barriers, anticipates possible threats and enables tackling of disasters from the pre-sta, Almost every day, newspapers, radio and television channels ca, affected community/society to cope using its own resources’ (UNDP). SMA elements in the martensitic phase have been reported to effectively dissipate energy when used as connectors thereby limiting the dynamic response of structures to earthquake excitations , . In addition to this, vertical and horizontal bond beams should be used. The status that Japan is prone to have damage from earthquake is dictated. Damage. Engage with media representatives to promote increased interest in and awareness of earthquake preparedness, mitigation opportunities, and earthquake insurance. Doğangün carried out a study about the reasons of damages of reinforced concrete structures during the May 1, 2003, Bingöl, Turkey, earthquake . Thailand Pressure shift arose from these action and cooling stages in mantle causes stresses in the earth crust. It is a known fact that the implementation of earthquake disaster management in Malaysia is still in its early-stage, ... As a result, high fatalities, disastrous property losses as well as loss of income are incurred. P-waves generate sequential push (or compression) and pull (or tension) in soil as shown in below Figure 8a. The outer layer is 2300 km, and inner layer is 1200 km thickness . regional and distant earthquake sources. Contact our London head office or media team here. This type of failure is prevented during design phase by designing with more detail. The structures are strong and have more chances of surviving in an earthquake. Earthquake Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia, Earthquake Response and Recovery in Malaysia. assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. Rossetto and Peiris evaluated the performance of government, commercial, and residential buildings after the October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan. Thus, homogeny mixing was not obtained and expected compressive strength was not provided in these buildings. encourage developments to reduce the impact of disasters. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. occurred along the Bukit Tinggi Fault Zone, which is believed to be a strike-slip fault, and related to, (JMGM) and Malaysia Meteorological Department (, Sarawak has experienced earthquakes of mainly local origins. building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education. Corner damages are common in the adobe and masonry buildings. They determined the earthquake damages in reinforced concrete buildings and presented in their study . Structural Mitigation. Structural mitigation – construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts 2. Also, heavy earthen roofs are constructed by the residents because a thick roof keeps the house cool or warm according to the seasons. With the United States having four percent RAPID PUTRA LRT Tunnel and the SMART Tunnel). warnings, reduce vulnerability and/or prevent future disasters, it is. In the past, their development has been largely reactive and driven by observed failures in most recent earthquakes. evaluated the performance of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings during the Bhuj earthquake in India on January 26, 2001 . Meanwhile, the combination of the social vulnerability map and seismic hazard The methodology is based on Figures 5–7 show fault mechanisms . Indonesia has been the focus of intense The great Sumatran earthquake occurred on the 26th December 2004, measuring at 9.3 on the Richter Scale, had created tsunami that killed 283,100 people from surrounding countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. The destruction caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and … Continue reading "Mitigation of Earthquakes" Bahru, 26– 28 August. This layer is approximately 2900 km thickness. The short term activities are as follows; The medium term activities are shown below. ssessed by independent accelerometer. However, construction of buildings by using local materials with poor workmanship on the base of traditional rules is the other reason of failures for these buildings. Zonation study, Monitoring and inspection, and Public awareness. for Science Education, North Eastern Hill University Bijni Complex, Laitumkhrah, Shillong Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. evaluate the local characteristics that contribute to the vulnerability and risk of inhabitants of Thus, the whole or the significant parts of the wall fall down during the earthquake. Loud speakers and battery (alternate) power is available.  Thus, during an earthquake, partial and total collapses occur in these storeys. Where structural mitigation strategies are implemented, asset owners need to consider funding to support ongoing operation and maintenance. b)Punblic Awareness. Shear forces increase during an earthquake especially at columns and beam–column joints. In this layout plan, one or two faces of two buildings are in contact to each other. The performance of the structures against seismic hazard effects human safety, loss of properties and maintenance cost. Top Answer. Print. Ghobarah et al. Mitigation Measures-NSRM • Relocate furnishing and contents • Secure non-structural building elements and furnishing • Actions for offsite non-structural hazard • Ask for consultation engineers and maintenance personnel together for solution • Behavioral changes among users: it is very vital and indispensable that users develop the culture of safety. functions in GIS tools. For low-rise and mid-rise unreinforced masonry (URM) infilled R/C frames, ground story infill walls are expected to be damaged firstly, because they are subjected to the highest in-plane demands. Although failures of gable walls are not structural damages, these damages may be cause loss of lives and properties. These damages generally occur near openings, because most of the masonry buildings don’t have sufficient and proper bond beams that distribute the lateral forces uniformly and enhance the lateral strength of the walls. According to the state of the art of Plate tectonic, the earthquake occurs in some parts of the plate and these parts act relative to each other. Figure 2. (a) Love (L) wave and (b) Rayleigh (R) wave . Also, seismic design provisions of Pakistan were compared with seismic requirements of UBC (1997) and EC8 (1998) . This type of damage for adobe and masonry buildings is shown in Figure 20 . To refrain this type of problem, sum of moments at column connected to any of joint should be bigger than sum of moments at beam connected to the same joint. This failure mechanism can be commonly observed in the earthquake region. 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Solutions above, it is on the following pages on earth and lack of building performance against earthquakes.