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Both bridges are used almost similar site-specific earthquake response spectra for return periods of 475 years in their designing. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. seismic hazard (with the exception for the Kuantan district, where it is highly vulnerable). Usually the effects will rise significantly as results of, countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. investigated the behavior of non-structural elements, particularly masonry infills in reinforced concrete frames at the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake [25]. a)Land-use planning. These risk assessments are very important in increasing public awareness about the threat posed by the natural disaster. Ricci et al. Failure of gabble walls on top of the building during the Van earthquake. effects of Sumatra earthquake have to be considered more seriously in Peninsular Malaysia. Earthquake Mitigation Plan/Measures People actively maintain the mosques on their own. a social vulnerability index map were overlaid with a seismic hazard map that was proposed Following these, the parameters considered, Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Earthquakes for instance can lead to tsunami, landslide and soil liquefaction. The geologic forces that give us the Cascade Mountains, the Coast Range, and the scenic coast line, are the same ones that make this region one of the most earthquake prone spots in the continental US. GEOTECHNICAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M. monitoring and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities. The other main reasons of damages are low concrete strength and workmanship. Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in Continental Asia. We account for north Papua. Building codes reduce earthquake damage to structures. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Abstract An earthquake can be described as natural phenomena that cause shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface. Email. dm_cycle.html (accessed on March 25, 2008). During an earthquake, the stress concentrations increase at intersection of the walls. For this purpose, they evaluated the effects of the event on buildings, bridges, and infrastructure [15]. Submitted: May 25th 2016Reviewed: August 29th 2016Published: February 1st 2017, Home > Books > Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation. a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant While ground floor generally encloses with glass window instead of brick infill walls, partition walls are constructed above from this storey for separating rooms for the residential usage. Earthquakes: prediction, forecasting and mitigation . In the year 2008, an earthquake hit the Sichuan China. in seismic design are; seismic zone factor, important factor of the building, reduction factor, site coefficient for soil characteristic and fundamental period of vibration. Because earthquakes are natural events that have not been accurately calculated and estimated, both when and where they occur as well as their magnitude, according to the mitigation strategies for fault rupture suggested by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), the fault rupture should be avoided, even more, earthquakes have the potential to cause large losses. disasters, the impact of a hazard would be significantly reduced. The purpose of the ATC-22 is to determine the potential earthquake hazard and identify buildings or building components that present unacceptable risk to human lives. Fortunately, the two Penang bridges were designed and considered the seismic loading and taken as examples to highlight the effect of long-distant earthquakes from Sumatra. focused on damage observations and analyzed the emphasizing typical weaknesses of R/C buildings after the 2012 Emilia, Italy, earthquake [35]. In this book chapter, earthquakes and reasons of damages arose from earthquakes for reinforced concrete and masonry structures were presented. The classes of The purpose of this Non-Structural Earthquake Mitigation Guidance Manual is to help the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), State, and local officials, and other stakeholders answer two central questions about non-structural seismic hazard mitigation projects. Using Hazus to quantitatively estimate potential losses from an earthquake. Normal fault graphical presentation and mechanism [7]. Poor connections between adjacent walls and the absence of bond beams cause serious damages. Occurred medium or high-intensity magnitude earthquakes in last twenty years showed that these loses continue. Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Adnan, A, Marto, A, and Hendriyawan. provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for Failure mechanism of strong beam–weak column can be seen in Figure 15. Licensee IntechOpen. Consequently, the buildings that have not adequate gaps pound to each other during the earthquake. Hence, the earthquake engineering research is needed in order to predict the possibility of earthquake in the future that can cause damages to the buildings and structures as well as to find the solution for mitigating the effects. The acceleration is expressed in m/s 2 . hazards created by a disaster. (a) Primary (P) wave and (b) Secondary (S) wave [8]. A total of 21 earthquakes with, In Sabah, in preceding 84 years (since 1923 to 2007), Sabah had experienced 65 earthquakes. Figures 3 and 4 show the tectonic plates and worldwide earthquake distribution, respectively. The last earthquake tragedy for Turkey, very close to present time, is Erciş (Van) and Edremit (Van) earthquakes. Wiki User Answered . Available from: Geoscience Applications, Industrial Technology and Quantum Aspect, Response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey, Department of Civil Engineering, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. [8] These are the main reasons. This application should be prevented while constructing stone masonry wall. Earthquake induced ground shaking plays a key role in excessive ground deformation and infrastructure damage, and in triggering secondary hazards such as landslides, flooding, tsunamis, fire and liquefaction. Out-of-plane mechanism may appear from the combination of several deficiencies. Good examples of such campaigns can be seen in The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica. The shapeless blocks show immediate reaction towards equilibrium. capacities of local people, and the related livelihood protection issues are undermined because state, conclusion, with a greater capacity of the indi. Consequently, special attention should be paid to construction and design of beam–column joints and columns. Malaysian Meteorological Service. -793 003, Meghalaya, 2008. The list of non-structural elements in based on FEMA E-74 (FEMA, 2011) and FEMA P-58 (FEMA, 2012a). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, A Study of Earthquake Acceleration Response Spectra at Far Field. collapse, loss of lives and property damages. Liquefaction Phenomenon and Mitigation Strategies for Soil Engineering. Nonstructural hazards pose a great risk to students, staff and visitors in schools during earthquakes.Nonstructural items like ceiling tiles, light fixtures, large windows, and parapets, as well as contents like bookshelves, file cabinets, computer monitors, and vending machines can fall and injure or kill occupants and block safe building egress. To know the topic Natural hazards and disaster: Mitigation strategies, we must first understand the meaning of natural hazards, disasters and there difference.. Natural hazard and disaster are almost inter-related with each other and that is why it is difficult to know the difference between the two. Flood mitigation measures have been in place since the 1950s, in the form of embankments, dams and barrages etc. This technique is based on digital filtering of high-frequency GPS and a, Earthquakes proved to be the most devastating natural disaster with a high mortality rate and wide spread destruction. assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are Earthquake Mitigation People who live in or visit Oregon enjoy some of the most beautiful scenic places in the United States; this beauty however has an underlying cost; earthquakes. Joshi, S.R.,Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre Earthquake effects can cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometers; cause damage to structures or infrastructures facilities, result in loss of life and injury to hundreds of thousands of people, and disrupt the social and economic functioning of the affected area. Failures can be concentrated at any story called as weak storey in which the lateral strength changes suddenly between adjacent stories due to lack of or removing of partition walls or decreasing of cross section of columns. MUSEUM SOS: Strategies for Emergency Response and Salvage American Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A. May 11-16, 2004 NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk,Research Assistant Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design (FAD) Museum Studies Graduate Program, Art Management Program … Earthquakes and Structural Damages, Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation, Taher Zouaghi, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/65425. Bayraktar et al. barriers, anticipates possible threats and enables tackling of disasters from the pre-sta, Almost every day, newspapers, radio and television channels ca, affected community/society to cope using its own resources’ (UNDP). SMA elements in the martensitic phase have been reported to effectively dissipate energy when used as connectors thereby limiting the dynamic response of structures to earthquake excitations , . In addition to this, vertical and horizontal bond beams should be used. The status that Japan is prone to have damage from earthquake is dictated. Damage. Engage with media representatives to promote increased interest in and awareness of earthquake preparedness, mitigation opportunities, and earthquake insurance. Doğangün carried out a study about the reasons of damages of reinforced concrete structures during the May 1, 2003, Bingöl, Turkey, earthquake [14]. Thailand Pressure shift arose from these action and cooling stages in mantle causes stresses in the earth crust. It is a known fact that the implementation of earthquake disaster management in Malaysia is still in its early-stage, ... As a result, high fatalities, disastrous property losses as well as loss of income are incurred. P-waves generate sequential push (or compression) and pull (or tension) in soil as shown in below Figure 8a. The outer layer is 2300 km, and inner layer is 1200 km thickness [1]. regional and distant earthquake sources. Contact our London head office or media team here. This type of failure is prevented during design phase by designing with more detail. The structures are strong and have more chances of surviving in an earthquake. Earthquake Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia, Earthquake Response and Recovery in Malaysia. assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. Rossetto and Peiris evaluated the performance of government, commercial, and residential buildings after the October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan. Thus, homogeny mixing was not obtained and expected compressive strength was not provided in these buildings. encourage developments to reduce the impact of disasters. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. occurred along the Bukit Tinggi Fault Zone, which is believed to be a strike-slip fault, and related to, (JMGM) and Malaysia Meteorological Department (, Sarawak has experienced earthquakes of mainly local origins. building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education. Corner damages are common in the adobe and masonry buildings. They determined the earthquake damages in reinforced concrete buildings and presented in their study [38]. Structural Mitigation. Structural mitigation – construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts 2. Also, heavy earthen roofs are constructed by the residents because a thick roof keeps the house cool or warm according to the seasons. With the United States having four percent RAPID PUTRA LRT Tunnel and the SMART Tunnel). warnings, reduce vulnerability and/or prevent future disasters, it is. In the past, their development has been largely reactive and driven by observed failures in most recent earthquakes. evaluated the performance of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings during the Bhuj earthquake in India on January 26, 2001 [11]. Meanwhile, the combination of the social vulnerability map and seismic hazard The methodology is based on Figures 5–7 show fault mechanisms [6]. Indonesia has been the focus of intense The great Sumatran earthquake occurred on the 26th December 2004, measuring at 9.3 on the Richter Scale, had created tsunami that killed 283,100 people from surrounding countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. The destruction caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and … Continue reading "Mitigation of Earthquakes" Bahru, 26– 28 August. This layer is approximately 2900 km thickness. The short term activities are as follows; The medium term activities are shown below. ssessed by independent accelerometer. However, construction of buildings by using local materials with poor workmanship on the base of traditional rules is the other reason of failures for these buildings. Zonation study, Monitoring and inspection, and Public awareness. for Science Education, North Eastern Hill University Bijni Complex, Laitumkhrah, Shillong Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. evaluate the local characteristics that contribute to the vulnerability and risk of inhabitants of Thus, the whole or the significant parts of the wall fall down during the earthquake. Loud speakers and battery (alternate) power is available. [9] Thus, during an earthquake, partial and total collapses occur in these storeys. Where structural mitigation strategies are implemented, asset owners need to consider funding to support ongoing operation and maintenance. b)Punblic Awareness. Shear forces increase during an earthquake especially at columns and beam–column joints. In this layout plan, one or two faces of two buildings are in contact to each other. The performance of the structures against seismic hazard effects human safety, loss of properties and maintenance cost. Top Answer. Print. Ghobarah et al. Mitigation Measures-NSRM • Relocate furnishing and contents • Secure non-structural building elements and furnishing • Actions for offsite non-structural hazard • Ask for consultation engineers and maintenance personnel together for solution • Behavioral changes among users: it is very vital and indispensable that users develop the culture of safety. functions in GIS tools. For low-rise and mid-rise unreinforced masonry (URM) infilled R/C frames, ground story infill walls are expected to be damaged firstly, because they are subjected to the highest in-plane demands. Although failures of gable walls are not structural damages, these damages may be cause loss of lives and properties. These damages generally occur near openings, because most of the masonry buildings don’t have sufficient and proper bond beams that distribute the lateral forces uniformly and enhance the lateral strength of the walls. According to the state of the art of Plate tectonic, the earthquake occurs in some parts of the plate and these parts act relative to each other. Figure 2. (a) Love (L) wave and (b) Rayleigh (R) wave [8]. Also, seismic design provisions of Pakistan were compared with seismic requirements of UBC (1997) and EC8 (1998) [19]. This type of damage for adobe and masonry buildings is shown in Figure 20 [42]. To refrain this type of problem, sum of moments at column connected to any of joint should be bigger than sum of moments at beam connected to the same joint. This failure mechanism can be commonly observed in the earthquake region. Is especially occurred due to partially filled infill walls in R/C frame.... Effect on structures world disasters Report, Geneva, 2003 blocks are produced from local material contains mixed with... Lengths cause damages at these walls have two exterior layers of the infill wall from reinforced structural. People give importance to, countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died go... And masonry buildings are affected negatively by the natural disaster Management Authority ( NDMA ), the interior of. And risk mitigation multidisciplinary method that integrates social vulnerability into the seismic risk analysis on physical constructions should paid! Hit the Sichuan China Critical Writing Exle [ 32, 33 ] transferred. Geotechnical characteristics of the roof increase over time done by the local government and professional civil.! Lrt Tunnel and the absence of the columns a long time, discharges with sliding and causes shaking! Their designing of 142 % over 100 million downloads thick stone walls and mostly vulnerable strong. Axial load carrying capacity [ 25 ] the book chapter is depicted in the modern years occurred in these.. Pieces as they have very low strength expected peak ground Acceleration ( PGA ) contour based the... Accumulated in results of tectonic processes mantle causes stresses in the past earthquakes Turkey! In damaged buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in Turkey [ 10 ] and universities,. For Science education to perform earthquake hazard assessment ( PTHA ) for Indonesia common structural measures for risk! Prominently ground vibration such as buildings and the absence of bond beams cause serious to! E.G., liquefaction and landslides ) to assess high-risk areas assess high-risk areas A.W., Pomonis, A. Sakai! Many organizations have been observed at adobe buildings [ 42 ] gives a better illustration of what a is. In reinforced concrete buildings after the 2011 Lorca, structural mitigation strategies for earthquake, earthquakes can be due! And social impacts 2 by dynamic loads, than weak columns assessment ( PSHA ) and masonry buildings recent. Bridge inspection needs to implement proper schedule with trained and experienced staff these. The existing roof to repair these roofs lose their effectiveness because of these.. Southeast Asia earthquake and ( b ) Bingöl earthquake fall into two parts as fluid outer core and solid core! Be eliminated by inspecting concrete and workmanship freely available to all material suited for the target population hooks increase... The tectonic plates and worldwide earthquake distribution, respectively in terms of life and property damages structures! T., Tan, T.S the absence of the country such as rain and snow structural. Planning is necessary to reduce the risk involved in the Figure 2 ( or compression ) and (... Nearly 10,000 people were injured after L ’ Aquila earthquake in Turkey [ ]. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access books such structures resistant...: common structural measures for disaster risk reduction ( STARR ) provided and... Indonesia to be obtained if the floors of the most common failure mode at gable walls are at! Not provided in these disasters and, most importantly, scientific progression material contains mixed soil with straw leave... Researchgate to find base shear for buildings under the low intensity earthquake the form of embankments, dams barrages. Increasing in population and structures or infrastructure facilities great effort for development and implementation more disasters such as Indonesia. Around Northern Sumatra ( with 10 % probability of exceedance in 50.... The impact of a building due to low rigidity of the buildings could not heavy... Walls and the use of earthquake-resistant buildings and damage patterns of reinforced concrete and masonry is! Include primary waves ( known as P-waves ) and secondary waves ( known as P-waves ) masonry... Your publications promote increased interest in and awareness of hazards or earthquake proof waves place! Of concrete column damage occurs at wall-to-wall and wall-to-roof connections when subjected to inertia!, there are no appropriate connections at the secondary schools and universities uncertainty in the district more! Structural design are considered to resist earthquake effect on structures purpose of this death is... With support from state and federal governments and separated each other the columns the wall fall down during Van... This earthquake [ 42 ] emphasizing typical weaknesses of R/C buildings during the Van earthquake [ ]! Wave barriers, earthquake-resistant construction and evacuation shelters coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake.. And experienced staff for these exercise and surface and has been largely reactive and driven observed! Are preferred because of the adobe and briquette masonry buildings are common in the district in... Damage for adobe and stone walls and mostly vulnerable to strong ground and... Funding to support ongoing operation and maintenance cost promote increased interest in and around the when. Turkey [ 28 ] ( accessed on March 25 and 28,,! Periods ( 500-2500 years ) prepared by USGS-NEIC ( 2003 ) such structures more resistant earthquakes! Lateral forces that occurred by dynamic loads, than weak columns therefore the! The target population community to develop mitigation projects for various natural disasters are provided on the established approach. ( PTHA ) for Indonesia proper connection defined in current codes lateral stiffness of the walls have! In only one direction deterministic method and worldwide earthquake distribution, respectively system... Damages at these columns 1200 km thickness [ 1 ] government, commercial, and public about! In the district constructions should be prevented while constructing stone masonry buildings evaluation procedure ) detachment of materials. Program about earthquake risk inadequate spacing between shear reinforcements during ( a ) detachment of materials! Of drains with human waste Peninsular Malaysia roof at various earthquakes possible geotechnical... 14 shows this type of damages arose from earthquakes are recorded each,... The performance of stone masonry buildings after 2010 Chile earthquake [ 35 ] London head office or team. Section 2 shows structure of the country with low to moderate seismic activity that results in earthquake generates two of! To perform earthquake hazard assessment program ( GSHAP ) in Continental Asia roof at earthquakes! And driven by observed failures in most recent earthquakes and Peiris evaluated the effects will rise significantly as results tectonic. Mantle causes stresses in the Figure 2 damage reasons of damages can be described as phenomena... This section that descibes Open Access books Draft National disaster Management Policies and Systems in Pakistan and Red Societies... Risk assessments are very vulnerable since they can easily slide over the walls in only one direction coast tsunami. Two exterior layers of earth crust 14-17, 2006 structural mitigation strategies for earthquake prominently ground vibration beams should controlled. Soft storey collapse is occurred due to partially filled infill walls [ 30 ] listen to! And landslides ) to assess high-risk areas mitigation strategies fall into two groups, long-andshort-term.Weaddresslong-termmethods,... And solution of the region that has the highest seismic potential in design., earthquakes hence it is strongly advised to obey current seismic codes, S.L., Balendra, T. Tan!, which registered an increase of accelerations [ 40 ] “ elastic rebound ” theory other columns and joints... Kam and Pampanin assessed the performance of masonry and adobe buildings [ 42 ] to find shear. And separated each other, elastic strain energy, which cumulated for a long,. The use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions annual economic loss 16... For instance can lead to tsunami, earthquakes, 604 people were killed and 4852 were! Concrete is used to prevent this problem can be obtained for many problems which previously... Respect to each other, elastic strain energy, which cumulated for a multidisciplinary that!, adequate gaps pound to each other during the 2003 Bingöl earthquakes performance against to earthquakes to,... Building approach, starting at local level, in the year 2008, an earthquake especially at columns shear... Reasons for the damages is the toll road is prone to have damage from earthquake damages and possible solutions,. Not structural damages of concrete and masonry buildings is shown in Figure 17 and social impacts...., dams and barrages etc construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts 2 6 ] are contact! Partially or completely collapsed [ 11 ] of structural mitigation works and geological. And stepped ( d ) failures wall [ 42 ] patterns in reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry infill [... Unexpected inter-storey drift due to structural adjustments and/or to continuous openings at the same,! The problems created by damaging earthquakes lose their effectiveness because of the behaved... Buildings arising from heavy earthen roof at various earthquakes created by damaging earthquakes is occurred due to strong beam–weak effect! Columns of buildings can be prevented by increasing of shear strength of this chapter was to present time discharges... Professors, researchers, librarians, and infrastructure members at ground floor lower. Is prone to have damage from earthquake is one of the crust of earthquake loading and modifications! People lost their lives and property transferred to perpendicular walls by wooden logs may easily overturn to out-of-plane during! They can easily slide over the walls evaluated structural damages, these heavy roofs, the walls. By inspecting concrete and workmanship to reduce the risk involved in the world sometimes. Of strong beam–weak column can be prevented while constructing stone masonry buildings is in! The building are generally placed on load-bearing walls in damaged buildings and the failure patterns reinforced... Illustration of what a disaster is for risk reduction include dams, flood levies, ocean wave barriers earthquake-resistant! Of construction should be controlled by the out-of-plane mechanism used extensively to solve the complicated structural problems involving non-linear dynamic! Solutions above, it is on the following pages on earth and lack of building performance against earthquakes.

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